Sources & References
Nutrition and Nephrotic Syndrome
Children with nephrotic syndrome may have trouble regulating their body's water balance. This can cause fluid retention (also known as edema). The diet for a child with nephrotic syndrome may include a sodium and fluid restriction. These restrictions in the diet may help to regulate your child's fluid balance. Any food that is liquid at room temperature counts as a fluid. This includes the following:
- Milk, water, juice, soda, and other beverages
- Ice cubes
- Ice cream, sherbet, frozen yogurt
Your child's doctor will discuss with you how much fluid your child should consume on a daily basis, based on his or her medical condition. The following recommendations may help with effectively monitoring and restricting your child's fluid intake. Consult your child's doctor for additional information.
- Identify the amount of fluid your child's favorite glass or cup holds, so that you do not have to measure your fluids every time. Try using small glasses. Small amounts of fluid in a big glass look like less than small amounts of fluid in a small glass.
- Keep track of how much fluid your child drinks each day; record amounts on a chart by the refrigerator or another convenient place.
- Avoid salty foods, as they increase thirst.
- Iced tea and lemonade quench thirst better than soda.
- Frozen pieces of fruit (melon, berries, grapes) can help quench thirst.
- Chewing gum or hard candy can help to quench thirst.
- Have your child rinse his or her mouth with cold water, but do not swallow.
- Sucking on a lemon wedge can stimulate saliva and moisten the mouth.
- Splashing cold water on your child's face and body can help him or her cool off.
- Staying out of the sun can help keep your child from becoming thirsty on a hot day.
Your child's doctor or dietitian will advise you on how much fluid your child may have each day. This amount is usually given in ounces, cups, or cc.
1 ounce = 30cc
1 cup = 8 ounces = 240cc
1 pint = 2 cups = 16 ounces = 480cc
1 quart = 4 cups = 32 ounces = 960cc
1 tablespoon = 1/2 ounce = 15cc
1 teaspoon = 5cc
A low-sodium or salt-restricted diet may be used to help prevent or reduce fluid retention in your child's body. The amount of sodium or salt allowed in your child's diet depends on your child's medical condition. Your child's doctor or dietitian will determine the amount of sodium allowed in your child's diet. This is usually expressed in milligrams (mg) per day. Some common sodium restrictions include 2,000, 3,000, or 4,000 mg per day. With most sodium-restricted diets, high-sodium foods are limited and salt is not allowed in food preparation or at the table.
The following foods are high in sodium and should be avoided if your child has been prescribed a low-sodium diet:
- Canned foods (vegetables, meats, pasta meals)
- Processed foods (meats, such as bologna, pepperoni, salami, hot dogs, sausage)
- Dried pasta and rice mixes
- Soups (canned and dried)
- Snack foods (chips, popcorn, pretzels, cheese puffs, salted nuts)
- Dips, sauces, and salad dressings
- Plain breads, cereals, rice, and pasta (not dried pasta or rice mixes)
- Vegetables and fruits (fresh or frozen)
- Meats (fresh cuts; not processed meats)
- Milk and yogurt (these tend to be moderate in sodium)
- Beverages, such as juices, tea, fruit drink or punch, and soda (sports drinks have sodium so these may need to be limited)
The following are considered low-sodium seasonings and do not require restriction:
The following seasonings are high in sodium, but may be used in limited amounts, in most cases.
Limit the following seasonings to 1 tablespoon per meal:
- Barbecue sauce
- Cocktail sauce
- Hot sauce
- Low-calorie salad dressing
- Steak sauce
The following recommendations may help to decrease the amount of salt in your child's diet:
- Don't use salt in cooking or at the table.
- Cook with herbs and spices or, if permitted by your child's doctor, use salt substitutes such as Mrs. Dash, NuSalt, NoSalt, or Morton's Lite Salt.
- Seasonings with the word "salt" in the name, such as garlic salt, are high in sodium. When seasoning foods, use fresh garlic or garlic powder, use onion powder instead of onion salt, and try celery seed rather that celery salt.
- Eat home-prepared meals, using fresh ingredients, instead of canned, frozen, or packaged meals. When dining out, request dressings and sauces on the side for your child. Ask the chef to hold the salt in food preparation.
|Type of food|
Foods to avoid
|Milk, yogurt, cheese|
- Whole, 2 percent, or skim milk
- Cottage cheese, regular hard cheeses, tofu
- Puddings, custards, ice cream
- Processed cheese, cheese spreads
|Meat, fish, poultry|
- Fresh or frozen meats, poultry, fish
- Low-sodium canned tuna or salmon
- Dried beans and peas
- Soybean or vegetable protein
- Peanut butter
- Salted or canned meats, fish (sardines, herring, anchovies), or poultry
- Lunch meats (bologna, ham, corned beef)
- Cured meats (ham, bacon, sausage)
- Hot dogs, dried beef, jerky
- Commercially frozen entrees
- Kosher-prepared meats
- Fresh, frozen, or canned fruits, fruit juices
- Fresh, frozen, or low sodium canned vegetables
- Sauerkraut, salted or pickled vegetables
- Vegetables cooked with salted meats
- Regular vegetable juices
|Starches, breads, cereals|
- Potatoes, macaroni, spaghetti, noodles, rice
- Unsalted potato chips, low sodium pretzels, unsalted crackers, unsalted popcorn, and nuts
- Whole grain and enriched breads
- Pancakes, muffins, french toast, waffles, biscuits, cookies, cakes
- Whole grain and enriched cooked or commercially prepared dry cereals
- Potato chips, slated snack foods or pretzels
- Commercially prepared rice and noodle mixes
- Salted breads, rolls and crackers
- Salted popcorn and nuts
- Chocolate, cocoa, horseradish, herbs and spices such as onion powder, fresh garlic, garlic powder, celery seed
- Flavorings such as vinegar, lemon juice, Tabasco
- Low-sodium condiments and seasonings such as Mrs. Dash, Nu-Salt, Morton's Lite Salt, NoSalt
- Ketchup, chili sauce, barbecue sauce, mustard, gravy (limit to 1 Tbsp per day)
- Low-sodium canned soups, homemade soups
- Commercially prepared meat sauces
- Monosodium glutamate (MSG)
- Onion salt, garlic slat, celery salt, seasoned salt
- Olives, pickles
- Relish, soy sauce, Worcestershire sauce
- Dehydrated soup or bouillon, canned soups
- Butter, margarine, lard, shortening, vegetable oil, mayonnaise
- Salad dressing (limit 1 Tbsp per day)
- Salt pork, bacon fat, fat back
- More than 1 Tbsp salad dressing per day
In many cases with nephrotic syndrome, your child may be placed on a 3,000 mg per day sodium-restricted diet. If this is the case, the following meal plan has been designed as an example to meet this restriction:
|Orange juice (1/2 cup)|
Dry cereal (1/2 cup)
Toast (1 slice)
Margarine (1 tsp)
Jelly (1 Tbsp)
Low-fat milk (1 cup)
|Beef patty (3 oz)|
Hamburger bun (1)
Mustard (1 Tbsp)
Ketchup (1 Tbsp)
Sliced tomato and lettuce
Low-fat milk (1 cup)
|Baked, breaded chicken strips, homemade (3 oz)|
Oven-baked french fries, homemade (1/2 cup)
Green beans (1/2 cup)
Dinner roll (1)
Margarine (1 tsp)
Apple juice (1 cup)
Frozen yogurt (1/2 cup)
|Morning snack||Afternoon snack|| |
Cereal fruit bar
|Oatmeal cookies (2)|
As you prepare foods for your child, it is important to read food labels carefully. Consider the following:
|The food label reads||What this means|
|Sodium-free||Less than 5 mg sodium per serving|
|Salt-free||Meets requirements for sodium-free|
|Low sodium||140 mg sodium or less per serving|
|Very low sodium||35 mg sodium or less per serving|
|Reduced sodium||At least 25 percent less sodium when compared to the same product without reduced sodium|
|Light in sodium||50 percent less sodium per serving when compared to foods with more than 40 calories per serving or more than 3 gm of fat per serving|
|Unsalted; no added salt; without added salt|
- No salt is added during processing
- The product it resembles and substitutes for is normally processed with salt
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