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Health Library : Respiratory Disorders



Anatomy of nose and throat
Click Image to Enlarge

What are pharyngitis and tonsillitis?

Pharyngitis and tonsillitis are infections in the throat that cause inflammation. If the tonsils are primarily affected, it is called tonsillitis. If the throat is primarily affected, it is called pharyngitis. A person might even have inflammation and infection of both the tonsils and the throat. This would be called pharyngotonsillitis. These infections are spread by close contact with other individuals. The majority of pharyngitis cases occur during the winter or colder months.

What causes pharyngitis and tonsillitis?

There are many causes of infections in the throat. Viruses are the most common cause and do not require antibiotics. Treating viral pharyngitis is a common reason for the inappropriate use of antibiotics, which should be used only for the treatment of bacterial infections. The following are other common and not-so-common causes:

    • Viruses. This infection is the most common in all age groups, and may include:
      • Adenovirus
      • Influenza virus
      • Epstein-Barr virus
      • Herpes simplex virus
    • Bacteria
      • Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (GABHS)
      • Neisseria gonorrhoeae
      • Haemophilus influenzae type b
      • Mycoplasma
      • Chlamydia pneumoniae
    • Fungal infections
    • Parasitic infections
    • Cigarette smoke
    • Other causes

    What are the symptoms of pharyngitis and tonsillitis?

    The symptoms of pharyngitis and tonsillitis depend greatly on the cause of the infection and the person affected. For some people, the onset of symptoms may be quick; for others, symptom onset is slow. The following are the most common symptoms of pharyngitis and tonsillitis. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:

    • Sore throat
    • Fever (either low- or high-grade)
    • Headache
    • Decrease in appetite
    • Not feeling well
    • Nausea
    • Vomiting
    • Stomach aches
    • Painful swallowing
    • Visual redness or drainage in the throat

    The symptoms of pharyngitis and tonsillitis may resemble other medical conditions or problems. Always consult your doctor for a diagnosis.

    How are pharyngitis and tonsillitis diagnosed?

    In most cases, it is hard to distinguish between a viral sore throat and a strep throat based on physical examination. It is important, though, to know if the sore throat is caused by GABHS, as this requires antibiotic treatment to help prevent the complications that can occur with these bacteria.

    As a result, most people, when they have the above symptoms, will receive a strep test and throat culture to determine if it is an infection caused by GABHS. This usually involves a throat swab in the doctor's office.

    Quick tests, called rapid strep tests, may be performed. This may immediately show as positive for GABHS and antibiotics will be started. If it is negative, part of the throat swab will be kept for a throat culture. This will further identify, in two to three days, if GABHS is present. Your doctor will decide the treatment plan based on the findings.

    What are the treatments for pharyngitis and tonsillitis?

    Specific treatment for pharyngitis and tonsillitis will be determined by your doctor based on:

    • Your age, overall health, and medical history
    • Extent of the condition
    • Cause of the condition
    • Your tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies
    • Expectations for the course of the condition
    • Your opinion or preference

    If bacteria are not the cause of the infection, then the treatment is usually more for comfort. Antibiotics will not help treat viral sore throats. Treatment may include:

    • Acetaminophen
    • Increased fluid intake
    • Throat lozenges
    • Antibiotics (if the cause of the infection is bacterial, not viral)

    Click here to view the
    Online Resources of Respiratory Disorders

     Sources & References


     Treatment at MUSC:
     »Family Medicine Center
     »Nose & Sinus Program



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