Tamoxifen-a drug used in hormone therapy to treat breast cancer that works by blocking the effects of estrogen.
Taste-sensation produced by a stimulus applied to the gustatory nerve endings in the tongue; the four tastes are salt, sour, sweet, and bitter; some say there is a fifth taste described as savory.
Taste buds-groups of cells located on the tongue that enable one to recognize different tastes.
Taste disorder-inability to perceive different flavors.
Telemetry unit-a small transmitter that is used to send information about the heart via radio transmission to healthcare professionals for evaluation.
Temporal arteries- one of three arteries located over the temples on each side of the head that supply blood to part of the head.
Temporomandibular joints (TMJ)-the joint that connects the jaw to the skull.
Tendons-the tough cords of tissue that connect muscles to bones.
Tendonitis-an inflammation in a tendon or the tendon covering.
Tenesmus-straining to have a bowel movement or to urinate.
Tennis elbow (Also called lateral epicondylitis.)-an injury to the tendons on the lateral portion of the elbow that bend the wrist backward away from the palms of the hands.
Testicular cancer-cancer that develops in a testicle.
Testis (testicle) -one of the pair of male gonads that produce semen; suspended in the scrotum by the spermatic cords.
Testosterone-male sex hormone produced mostly by the testicles, which stimulates bone and muscle growth and the development of male sex characteristics.
Tetanus-an acute, sometimes fatal, disease of the central nervous system; caused by the toxin of the Clostridium tetani bacterium, which usually enters the body through an open wound. Tetanus bacteria live in soil and manure, but also can be found in the human intestine and other places.
Thalassemia-an inherited blood disorder in which the chains of the hemoglobin (a type of protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to the tissues) molecule are abnormal; alpha thalassemia results when a mutation occurs in the alpha chain, while beta thalassemia results when the mutation occurs in the beta chain; signs and symptoms of thalassemias vary from mild (little to no symptoms) to severe (life threatening).
Thallium stress test-a study in which a radioactive substance is carried by the blood and its progress through the circulation of a specific body area is followed by x-ray pictures.
Thermal burns-burns due to external heat sources which raise the temperature of the skin and tissues and cause tissue cell death or charring. Hot metals, scalding liquids, steam, and flames, when coming in contact with the skin, cause thermal burns.
Thoracic spine-the 12 vertebrae between the cervical and lumbar spines that provide attachments for the ribs.
Thoracotomy-surgery to view the lung that may be used to confirm cancer, or for chest trauma to detect the source of bleeding.
Throat disorders-disorders or diseases of the larynx (voice box) or esophagus.
Thrombolysis-the breaking up of a blood clot.
Thrombolytic therapy-the use of a medication that dissolves blood clots.
Thrombosis-excess clotting which obstructs veins (venous thrombosis) and arteries (arterial thrombosis).
Thrombosis, deep-vein (DVT) -formation of blood clots in veins deep inside the legs.
Thrombus-a blood clot.
Thyroid scan-uses a radioactive substance to create an image of the thyroid as it is functioning.
Thyroplasty (Also known as laryngeal framework surgery.)-surgical technique to improve voice by altering the cartilages of the larynx.
Thyroxine (T4)-a hormone secreted by the thyroid gland which regulates metabolism.
Triiodothyronine (T3)-a hormone secreted by the thyroid gland which regulates metabolism and growth and development.
Tibia-shin bone or larger bone of the lower leg.
Tinea versicolor-a common fungal skin infection characterized by white or light brown patches on the skin.
Tinnitus-sensation of a ringing, roaring, or buzzing sound in the ears or head; often associated with various forms of hearing impairment.
Tissue-group or layer of cells that together perform specific functions.
Tissue expansion-a surgical procedure that involves inserting a balloon-like device (called an expander) under the skin. The expander then slowly secretes liquid into the area to be repaired to actually stretch and expand the skin. This serves the function of "growing" extra skin to repair nearby lost or damaged skin.
Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-a medication used to dissolve blood clots.
Tomography-from the Greek words "to cut or section" (tomos) and "to write" (graphein), in nuclear medicine, it is a method of separating interference from the area of interest by imaging a cut section of the object.
Tongue-large muscle on the floor of the mouth that manipulates food for chewing and swallowing; the main organ of taste, and assists in forming speech sounds.
Tonometry-test to measure intraocular (inside the eye) pressure for glaucoma.
Topical chemotherapy-chemotherapy given as a cream or lotion placed on the skin to kill cancer cells.
Torticollis (Also called wryneck.)-a twisting of the neck that causes the head to rotate and tilt on an angle.
Total (or simple) mastectomy-surgery to remove the entire breast (including the nipple, areola, and most of the overlying skin) and may also remove some of the lymph nodes under the arm, also called the axillary lymph glands.
Total gastrectomy-complete removal of the stomach.
Total hysterectomy-the surgical removal of the uterus, including the cervix; the fallopian tubes and the ovaries remain.
Total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy-the entire uterus, fallopian tubes, and the ovaries are surgically removed.
Tourette's syndrome- neurological disorder characterized by tics and other movements such as eye blinks or facial twitches that cannot be controlled.
Toxic epidermal necrolysis-a life-threatening skin disorder characterized by blistering and peeling of the top layer of skin.
Toxoplasmosis-an infection caused by a parasite that can lead to serious illness or death in the fetus if contracted be a pregnant woman.
Tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF)- a congenital (present at birth) connection between the trachea (windpipe) and esophagus (the tube that goes from the mouth to the stomach). With TEF, food or liquid that is swallowed can go into the lungs and cause breathing problems and possibly pneumonia.
Tracheostomy-surgical opening into the trachea (windpipe) to help someone breathe who has an obstruction or swelling in the larynx (voice box) or upper throat.
Trans fat (also called trans fatty acid or partially hydrogenated oil) -vegetable oil that has been treated with hydrogen in order to make it more solid and give it a longer shelf life. Eating foods containng trans fats can raise the risk for heart disease and stroke.
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS)-a method of providing pain relief using electrical signals which are sent to the nerve endings.
Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE)-a diagnostic test that uses ultrasound waves to assess the heart's structure and function. TEE is done by inserting a hollow tube containing an ultrasound probe through the mouth down into the esophagus.
Transferrin saturation test (TS)-a type of blood test used to assess iron levels in the blood.
Transient ischemic attack (TIA)-a short episode during which symptoms of a stroke appear, such a slurred speech, blurred vision, and/or decreased movement in one or more limbs. These symptoms last only a few hours, then resolve on their own. TIAs are considered to be a warning that a full stroke may happen in the future.
Transplantation-removal of a damaged organ and replacing it with one from a donor.
Transrectal ultrasound of the prostate-a test using sound wave echoes to create an image of an organ or gland to visually inspect for abnormal conditions such as gland enlargement, nodules, penetration of tumor through capsule of the gland, and/or invasion of seminal vesicles. It may also be used for guidance of needle biopsies of the prostate gland and guiding the nitrogen probes in cryosurgery.
Transurethral hyperthermia-a procedure that uses heat, usually provided by microwaves, to shrink the prostate.
Transurethral incision of the prostate (TUIP)-a procedure that widens the urethra by making some small cuts in the bladder neck, where the urethra joins the bladder, and in the prostate gland itself.
Transurethral laser incision of the prostate (TULIP)-the use of laser through the urethra that cuts through tissue. While laser devices are still being used for this type of procedure, the TULIP device is rarely, if ever, used anymore.
Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP)-a surgical procedure by which portions of the prostate gland are removed through the penis.
Transurethral surgery-surgery in which no external incision is needed. For prostate transurethral surgery, the surgeon reaches the prostate by inserting an instrument through the urethra.
Transvaginal ultrasound (Also called ultrasonography.)-an ultrasound test using a small instrument, called a transducer, that is placed in the vagina.
Transverse colon-part of the colon (large intestine) that extends across the abdomen from right to left.
Transverse friction- a deep massage technique used for tendon and ligament conditions.
Transverse myelitis-inflammation and swelling along the spinal cord with motor or sensory nerve dysfunction.
Trauma-a physical injury or wound caused by an external force of violence, which may cause death or permanent disability. Trauma is also used to describe severe emotional or psychological shock or distress.
Travel medicine-a specialized area of healthcare that focuses on the needs of travelers, particularly those who travel to other countries.
Traveler's diarrhea-a term used to describe diarrhea caused by infection with bacteria, protozoa, or viruses ingested by consuming food or water that has been contaminated. Two life-threatening types of traveler's diarrhea are caused by cholera and giardiasis.
Tremor-a rhythmical shaking of a limb, head, mouth, tongue, or other part of the body.
Tretinoin-a drug which is chemically related to vitamin A; used to treat acne and other scaly skin disorders.
Trichomoniasis-very common type of vaginitis caused by a single-celled organism usually transmitted during sexual contact.
Trichotillomania-a disorder characterized by recurrent, compulsive hair pulling.
Tricuspid valve-the heart valve that controls blood flow from the right atrium into the right ventricle.
Trigger finger-an irritation of the digital sheath that surrounds the flexor tendons of the finger. When the tendon sheath becomes thickened or swollen, it pinches the tendon and prevents it from gliding smoothly. In some cases, the tendon catches and then suddenly releases as though a trigger were released.
Trigger point-hypersensitive area or site in muscle or connective tissue, usually associated with myofascial pain syndromes.
Triglyceride-a fat-like substance found in the blood.
Trimester- one of three phases of pregnancy, each lasting about three months.
Tropical sprue- a condition which can affect people living in or visiting tropical areas. It affects the ability of the digestive tract to absorb nutrients from food.
Tubal ligation-surgical sterilization procedure in which the fallopian tubes are sealed or cut to prevent sperm from reaching an egg.
Tube feeding (Also called enteral nutrition.)-a way to provide food through a tube placed in the nose, stomach, or small intestine. A tube in the nose is called a nasogastric or nasoantral tube. A tube that goes through the skin into the stomach is called a gastrostomy or percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). A tube into the small intestine is called a jejunostomy or percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy (PEJ) tube.
Tuberculosis (TB)-an infectious disease that was once a major cuasse of death worldwide. The predominant TB organism is Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). Spread person-to-person in airborne droplets caused by sneezing or coughing, the bacteria usually infects the lungs. However, due to improved nutrition, housing, sanitation, medical care, and the introduction of antibiotics this century, reported TB cases in the US have declined dramatically.
Tumor-an abnormal lump or mass of tissue. Tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).
Tunica vaginalis-a thin pouch that holds the testes within the scrotum.
Tunnel surgery (also called percutaneous nephrolithotomy)-a procedure used to remove kidney stones. A narrow tunnel is made through the skin of the back to the stone inside the kidney. The stone is removed through this tunnel.
Tympanometry-a test that allows for air and sound to be directed into the middle ear.
Tympanoplasty-surgical repair of the eardrum (tympanic membrane) or bones of the middle ear.
Type 1 diabetes-a condition in which the body's immune system destroys the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. Insulin allows glucose to enter the cells of the body to provide energy. Persons with type 1diabetes must take daily insulin injections.
Type 2 diabetes-a condition in which the body either makes too little insulin or cannot properly use the insulin it makes to convert blood glucose to energy. Type 2 diabetes may be controlled with diet, exercise, and weight loss, or may require oral medications and/or insulin injections.
Typhoid fever-a bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi); often transmitted by contaminated water, food, or milk.
Tyrosine-the amino acid from which dopamine is made.
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