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Health Library : Endocrinology

 

Glossary - Endocrinology

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M
N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

A

Acromegaly-excessive growth due to the production of excessive growth hormone by the pituitary gland.

Adrenal cortex-the outer portion of the adrenal gland that secretes hormones that are vital to the body.

Aldosterone-a hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex which affects blood pressure and saline balance.

Amyloidosis-a rare disease which causes the buildup of amyloid, a protein and starch, in tissues and organs.

Androgen hormone-a hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex which affects blood pressure and saline balance.

B

Basal metabolic rate (BMR)-a measurement of energy required to keep the body functioning at rest. Measured in calories, metabolic rates increase with exertion, stress, fear, and illness.

Bromocriptine-a drug which acts on hormone-producing tumors to suppress its hormone-producing function.

C

Calcitonin-a hormone secreted by the thyroid gland which controls the levels of calcium and phosphorous in the blood.

Computed tomography (CT or CAT scan)-a non-invasive procedure that takes cross-sectional images of the brain or other internal organs; to detect any abnormalities that may not show up on an ordinary x-ray.

Corticosteroids-hormones produced by the adrenal gland, consisting of hydrocortisone (or cortisol).

D

E

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)-this procedure involves inserting an endoscope (viewing tube) through the stomach and into the small intestine. A special dye injected during this procedure shows the ducts in the biliary system.

Estrogen-a hormone secreted by the ovaries which affects many aspects of the female body, including menstrual cycles and pregnancy.

F

G

Glucagon-a protein hormone secreted by the pancreas to stimulate the liver to produce glucose.

Gonadotropins-luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone, produced by the pituitary gland.

Gonads-ovaries and testes.

H

Hirsutism-excessive growth of body and facial hair, including the chest, stomach, and back

Hormones-chemical substances created by the body that control numerous body functions.

Hydrocortisone-a hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex which affects metabolism.

Hypothalamus-the portion of the brain that stimulates the pituitary gland.

I

Insulin-a hormone released by the pancreas in response to increased levels of sugar in the blood.

Intravenous-introducing a fluid into the bloodstream through a vein (usually in the patient's forearm).

Islets of Langerhans-pancreas cells that produce insulin and glucagon - important regulators of sugar metabolism.

Isthmus-tissue that connects the two lobes of the thyroid.

J

K

L

M

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-a non-invasive procedure that produces two-dimensional view of an internal organ or structure, especially the brain and spinal cord.

Metabolism-the chemical activity that occurs in cells, releasing energy from nutrients or using energy to create other substances, such as proteins.

N

O

Oxytocin-a hormone secreted by the pituitary gland which plays a role in childbirth.

P

Placenta-this organ grows in the uterus during pregnancy and connects the blood supplies of the mother and baby.

Polyps-a growth that projects from the lining of mucous membrane, such as the intestine.

Progesterone-a hormone secreted by the ovaries which affect many aspects of the female body, including menstrual cycles and pregnancy.

Prolactin-a hormone secreted by the pituitary gland which affects growth of the mammary glands.

Q

R

Radioisotope scan-uses radioactive substances introduced into the body to create an image of the functioning adrenal gland.

S

Sarcoidosis-a rare inflammation of the lymph nodes and other tissues throughout the body.

Sella turcica-bony structure that houses the pituitary gland.

Suprarenal glands-another name for the adrenal glands.

T

Thyroid scan-uses a radioactive substance to create an image of the thyroid as it is functioning.

Thyroxine (T4)-a hormone secreted by the thyroid gland which regulates metabolism.

Triiodothyronine (T3)-a hormone secreted by the thyroid gland which regulates metabolism.

U

Ultrasound-a diagnostic technique which uses high-frequency sound waves to create an image of the internal organs.

V

W

X

X-ray-electromagnetic energy used to produce images of bones and internal organs onto film.

Y

Z


 Sources & References

OUR SERVICES

 Find an MUSC Doctor:
 »Endocrinology
 »Neurosurgery
 »Pediatric Endocrinology


 Treatment at MUSC:
 »Head and Neck Tumor Program

 

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